THE ORIGINS OF PANTOMIME STORIES

tinsel_printIn this new millennium, fairy tales are flourishing. The children’s sections of libraries and bookshops are bursting with beautiful editions of well-known fairy tales, with exotic, vivid illustrations. Their collections are worldwide: Russian, German, Japanese, Chinese, Persian, Scandinavian, African, North American, British, and more.

To have survived over the ages, the traditional fairy tales must have had very strong and special meanings. And this would explain their longevity.

The secret of this longevity has been transferred to Pantomime, which draws most of its stories from well-known fairy-tales, popular folk-tales and similar sources.

English Pantomimes usually contain stock characters such as the principal boy, (generally played by a young girl with shapely legs) the heroine (also played by a young girl) And a dame (almost always played by a man) who is an exaggeration of a lewd middle-aged lady. Scripts change from year to year, to reflect the times.

One of the strengths of pantomime, is that is constantly evolving and updating. Pantomime, or ‘panto’ as it is affectionately called in Britain, contains four strands of humour: visual, topical, corny and the downright rude. The same type of humour that is to be found on saucy seaside postcards.

mother goose

The name of MOTHER GOOSE has been closely associated with nursery rhymes. And although the title is seemingly as English as plum pudding, the origin of the name is still a matter of dispute.

Some trace it to a French collection of tales by Charles Perrault (1697) that had the subtitle ‘Contes de ma mère L’Oye’ (tales of mother goose) This name has in turn been traced to Queen Goosefoot, the mother of the German speaking King Charlemagne (anno 742) who was a patron of children.

Others claim an American origin in ‘Mother Goose’s Melodie’, published 1719 in Boston by Thomas Fleet, whose mother-in-law was said to be Elizabeth Vergoose.

A collection of Mother Goose rhymes was published by John Newbery in London in 1765. The subject matter of the rhymes has been linked by some scholars to actual events in English political history. 

The legend of ROBIN HOOD has been handed down from the many ballads and stories about the legendary hero. Embellished and added to down the centuries, to become the myth (or is it) that has fuelled countless Hollywood versions.

The existence of Maid Marian is much more doubtful than Robin Hood himself. But it gives the all important love interest that all good hero stories seem to need.

In pantomime terms, Robin Hood is more traditionally found in the story of Babes In The Wood According to tradition and folklore the tale of the Babes In The Wood is said to be based on two Norfolk children whose cruel uncle decided to do away with them.

The setting is Wayland Wood or as it is known by its old name ‘Wailing Wood’. The Babes in the Wood was presented in the form of an old English ballad first published in Norwich by Thomas Millington in 1595. The pantomime version generally features Robin Hood as the Babes rescuer.

CINDERELLA is probably the most famous fairytale of them all. And embodies the classic folk tale myth-element of unjust oppression/triumphant reward, which received literally hundreds of tellings before modern times.

The earliest version of the story originated in China around AD 860. It appeared in The Miscel Record of Yu Yang by Tuan Ch’ing-Shih, a book which dates from the Tang dynasty.

The best-known version was written by the French author, Charles Perrault in 1697, based on a common folk tale earlier recorded by Giambattista Basile as ‘La Gatta Cennerentola’ in 1634.

Limelight script’s version adds a new element to the traditional pantomime by casting Buttons as the inventor of a ‘high tech’ beauty measuring machine, which he uses to measure the ugly sisters charms, or lack of them.

JACK AND THE BEANSTALKis closely associated with the fairy tale of ‘Jack the Giant Killer’. The origin of Jack and the Beanstalk is unknown, although the author was almost certainly British.

The earliest printed edition, which has survived is the 1807 book ‘The history of Jack and the bean-stalk’ printed from the original manuscript, but never before published.

Although the story was already in existence sometime before this time as a burlesque of the story entitled ‘The Story of Jack Spriggins and the Enchanted Bean’ was included in the 1734 second edition of Round about our Coal-Fire.

Limelight Scripts version follows the traditional story, but still manages to add something unique in the form of a lift installed on the beanstalk, which is used to great comic effect.

Jack and the beanstalk

The story of DICK WHITTINGTON is based on a real person who held office of Lord Mayor of London three times, in 1397, 1406 and 1419. And contrary to popular belief he was not a poor, ill-treated orphan who managed against all the odds to work his way up to the top job.

He did in fact come from a very wealthy family and was a successful businessman before becoming Lord Mayor. And the “cat” with which Dick made his fortune in the Dick Whittington tale, was a type of merchant ship rather than a feline cat.

Which would explain why the shipwreck scene is such an integral part of the pantomime version. And it is certainly used to great effect in our full length version of the the Dick Whittington story.

dick whittington

Aladdin

The story of ALADDIN comes from the Thousand-And-One Nights fable. (or stories from The Arabian Nights) which also includes Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, and Sinbad the Sailor.

The original story is set in China, but a strangely Arabian China (populated with genies and magicians) But in the case of panto, it is a very English China – hence it is centred around a Chinese laundry.

Limelight Scripts version sticks to the traditional storyline. But like all good panto’s it also incorporates up to date themes, reflecting current popular shows. 

SLEEPING BEAUTY

Sleeping Beauty (“La Belle aux bois dormant”) is a fairy tale classic, the first in the set published in 1697 by Charles Perrault. Elements of the story are contained in Giambattista Basile’s ‘Pentamerone ‘ (published in 1634) in the tale ‘Sun, Moon and Talia’ J. R. R.

Tolkien noted that Perrault’s cultural presence is so pervasive that, when asked to name a fairy tale, most people will cite one of the eight stories in Perrault’s collection.

More modern additions to pantomime have titles such as Pinocchio, Beauty And The Beast, Calamity Jane, Scrooge, and The Grinch. Limelight Scripts version The Grinch ‘The Panto’ is a parody of the Grinch who stole Christmas by Dr Suess, and offers great scope for magical Christmas based scenes, such as the Snow Queens palace, and Santa’s workshop.

CINDERELLA:

In the Brothers Grimm version, one of Cinderella’s evil stepsisters cuts off her toes, and the other her heel so they can both fit into the tiny glass slipper.

The prince is notified by little doves that there is blood on the shoe, and finally discovers that the true owner is Cinderella.

Once the stepsisters realise that they should try to win favour with Cinderella (after all, she will be queen), they attend her wedding, only to have their eyes pecked out by birds.

By the way: Cinderella doesn’t have a cuddly fairy godmother. Rather, she plants a tree by her mother’s grave and prays under it every day. She finds her dresses to wear to each ball under the tree (there are three in the story, not one like in the movie). She is still helped by animals, though specifically birds, and not mice.

Also, she doesn’t just lose her shoe because she is in a rush. The clever prince covers the steps in pitch to make her stick to them, but she only loses a shoe in the process.

princess_cinderella_story

THE LITTLE MERMAID:

Hans Christian Andersen’s classic tale is a 180 from the Disney film, although some parts align.

She does see the prince from afar in his ship, and she does rescue him from drowning and fall in love with him. He doesn’t see her. She does visit the sea witch who takes her tongue in exchange for legs (and she does do it because the little mermaid has an amazing voice).

The deal is the same: The mermaid can only remain a human if she finds true love’s kiss and the prince falls in love with and marries her.

However, the penalty in the movie is only that Ariel will turn back into a mermaid if she fails. In the story, she will die if she fails. Also, while the prince remains a main motivator, the mermaid in the story is also motivated because humans have eternal souls, and mermaids don’t.

The Disney movie leaves out that the penalty the mermaid pays for having legs: every single step she takes will feel like she is walking on sharp shards of glass.

At first, it seems like the plan is working, but then the prince ends up marrying another, a woman he thinks is the person who saved him (the mermaid can’t exactly tell him the truth, since she can’t talk).

She is told that if she kills the prince, then she can simply turn back into a mermaid and doesn’t have to die. She just can’t do it, though.

She throws herself into the sea, and turns into sea foam (though it should be mentioned that she then becomes a ‘daughter of the air,’ entering a kind of purgatory where she must do good deeds until she maybe earns a soul, which will take about 300 years to happen)

SLEEPING BEAUTY:

In Giambattista Basile’s tale (which is the actual origin of the Sleeping Beauty story), a king happens to walk by Sleeping Beauty’s castle and knock on the door.

When no one answers, he climbs up a ladder through a window. He finds the princess, and calls to her, but as she is unconscious, she does not wake up. Well, dear reader, he carries her to the bed and rapes her. Then he just leaves.

She awakens after she gives birth because one of her twins sucks the flax (from the spindle) out of her finger. The king comes back, and despite him having raped her, they end up falling in love?

However, another big problem: the king is still married to someone else. His wife finds out and not only tries to have the twins killed, cooked, and fed to the king, but also tries to burn the princess at the stake.

Luckily, she is unsuccessful. The king and the princess get married and live happily ever after (despite the fact that he raped her).

Perrault’s adaptation of Basile’s updated adaptation of the story (a much tamer version) is probably what was used for the Disney adaptation, as they are much more similar.

PINOCCHIO:

Disney’s “Pinocchio” came from Carlo Collodi’s 1883 Italian classic “The Adventures of Pinocchio.”

You might think Pinocchio was mischievous in the movie, but he is far more so in the book. In the book, he runs away as soon as he learns to walk. He is found by the police, who imprison Geppetto because they believe Pinocchio was abused.

Pinocchio returns home, where he kills a talking cricket (sorry, Jiminy) who warns him of the dangers of hedonistic pleasures and obedience. Geppetto is released, and insists that Pinocchio goes to school.

Pinocchio sells his school books for a ticket to the Great Marionette Theatre. He encounters a fox and a cat, who steal his money and unsuccessfully try to hang him. Luckily, after saving Geppetto from the terrible dogfish (you might know it better as the gigantic, angry whale from the film), Pinocchio shapes up and eventually becomes a real boy.

And all that stuff about boys getting turned into donkeys and then sold to evil circuses, did end up making it into the movie, surprisingly.

SNOW WHITE AND THE SEVEN DWARFS:

In the Brothers Grimm version, the evil queen stepmother asks a hunter to take Snow White into the forest and kill her (this also happens in the Disney movie).

However, in the story, she asks him to also bring her back Snow White’s lungs and liver. He can’t kill Snow White, so brings back a boar’s lungs and liver instead.

The queen eats the lungs and liver, believing them to be Snow White’s. In the book, the queen tries twice (unsuccessfully) to kill Snow White.

The third time, when the queen gives her the apple (just like in the movie), Snow White faints and can’t be revived. She is placed in a glass coffin. A prince comes and wants to take her away (even though she is still asleep, which is pretty weird).

The dwarves hesitantly allow it, and while she is being carried, the carriers trip, causing the poisoned apple to become dislodged from Snow White’s throat. She and the prince, of course, get married.

The evil queen is invited. And as a punishment, she is forced to wear burning-hot iron shoes and dance until she drops dead.

TANGLED:

Granted, this is a pretty loose adaptation of Rapunzel. But still, I think it’s worth mentioning.

In the Brothers Grimm version, Rapunzel gets knocked up by the prince before they escape, and the evil sorceress figures it out. The sorceress cuts off Rapunzel’s hair and throws her out into the wilderness.

When the prince shows up to see her, the sorceress dangles Rapunzel’s cut-off hair to lure him, and tells him he will never see Rapunzel again. He jumps out the window in despair and is blinded from the thorns below.

He wanders around aimlessly (he is blind). Rapunzel gives birth to twins. He is eventually guided back to her when he hears her voice. Her tears restore his sight. They return to the prince’s kingdom and live happily ever after.

So, some of these fairy tales actually do have real happy endings.

THE FOX AND THE HOUND:

The Fox and the Hound is based on a 1967 novel by Daniel P. Mannix. In the book, the fox is raised by the dog owner’s/hunter’s family, but eventually returns to the wild.

He occasionally returns to taunt the dogs, and flash his cunning fox skills. One of the dogs breaks his chain, and chases him. That dog ends up getting hit by a train.

The hunter is devastated, and vows revenge on the fox. He becomes obsessed, but can never catch him (although he does kill the fox’s first mate, second mate, and children).

Eventually, Tod the fox does die, but of exhaustion from being chased so much. Copper (the dog from “The Fox and the Hound”) is so old that he needs to be shot, and that is the end of the book.

the-fox-and-the-hound

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST:

Beauty and the Beast is actually pretty accurate, except for some uninteresting details (like how Belle’s father used to be rich, but got himself into major debt).

There is one unfortunate detail that the story does leave out. In the first believed version of the tale (by Gabrielle-Suzanne Barbot de Villeneuve), Belle has two wicked sisters (lots of wicked family members in fairy tales, unfortunately).

The Beast allows Belle to travel home, as long as she is only gone for a week. Her sisters are extremely jealous to hear about her luxurious life, and try to persuade Belle to stay with them longer than a week, in the hopes that the Beast will be infuriated with Belle and eat her alive upon her return.

THE LION KING:

Believe it or not, ‘The Lion King’ is a loose adaptation of Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Of course you knew that – right?

A jealous brother kills the king. The son finds out about it and wants revenge. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, i.e. Timon and Pumba, distract him.

But finally, the son kills the evil jealous brother. Although in Shakespeare’s, version everyone dies and not just the evil, jealous brother (formerly known as “Claudius”).